Vizury Shortlisted for Festival of Media Awards 2015

While superior performance and customer delight are always on our minds, being recognized for doing it is a bigger win. Our data driven marketing efforts saw some amazing results for Etihad Airways and we are now shortlisted for the Festival Of Media Awards 2015 under the Smart Use of Data category. And, this is what we were up against…

FOMA 2015_Vizury

Check out our fellow nominees here.

What the other Ad Tech predictions won’t tell you…

Crisp in office after New Year’s and weighed down with the crystal ball visuals for marketing this year, we have put together some first hand insights straight from different parts of the world. While certain geographies are nascent to the concept of data driven marketing, others are going full throttle. Nevertheless, it is going to be an awesome year for marketing folks.

what other ad tech predictions won't tell you-1

Mobile web to Mobile app – The Transition

‘Mobile web is top of the funnel, mobile app is bottom of funnel’ says Fred Wilson, prominent VC and thought leader, in his latest blog titled, well ‘Mobile web is top of the funnel, mobile app is bottom of funnel’.

He refers to the latest Comscore US Mobile App Report which has some interesting stats comparing mobile web and mobile app usage in the US. As the author rightly points out, the data may be skewed since the report talks only about the US, the inferences still are worth taking a note of.

The US seems to stil lag behind when it comes to the transition to mobile apps. The eastern markets have been much quicker to adopt mobile apps, moving on from mobile web. The largest e-commerce players in markets like India, China, Japan and other south east asian countries generate more than 60% of their revenue from the app. There are some companies which have completed migrated to apps and closed down their desktop and mobile websites as well.

In this article though, Fred Wilson talks about how it is easier to attract traffic to the mobile web than the mobile app, simply because users directly land on a brand’s mobile web site before having to install the app from the app store or playstore. Thus, the mobile web for a user is like window shopping before he or she enters the store and buys something.

This graph from the Comscore report shows the average monthly audience to mobile web is 2.5 times more than that to the mobile app. The data includes the top 1000 mobile web properties versus the top 1000 mobile apps.

mobile web growing faster

Whereas, when it comes to time spent, mobile web doesn’t get any close to the app,

app dominate time spent

On an average, users spend more than 80% of their time on the mobile app. This stat is consistent with other markets.

This clearly means that user experience is critical for a brand to retain app users and prompt them towards a transaction. Having a massive install base is good, but it is not going to mean anything to your business if your users are not coming back to your app.

There are a million apps out there crowding the market and people are spoiled for choices. The only way you are going to stand out is by personalizing the experience of your app users. Consumers now expect a brand to know where they are and what they want. And especially when it comes to a very personal device such as the mobile phone, they love it when you personalize your messaging and offerings.

Mobile marketing automation platforms help you with understanding user behavior data, segmentation and then customize messaging across channels such as push, display, social media and email. If you are not working with one already, it is high time you did.

Write back to let me know your thoughts. I would love to hear them.

To know more about chrome notifications, google notifications, android notification Browser Push Notifications and  push messages visit our website https://www1.vizury.com/

 

All that you need to know about Personalized Push Notifications

You’ve probably heard/read a multiple times about how Push Notifications are under-utilized and when used well can help you achieve much better user engagement. It’s true! We have seen 3X more clicks, 10X higher conversions and upto 50% less uninstalls when personalized Push Notifications are sent out to app users.

What do personalized Push Notifications look like? Which elements in a Push can be customized? What kind of Mobile Marketing goals can you achieve with such personalized Push messages? Here’s the answer to all of these questions.

If you are having trouble viewing the SlideShare embed below, Click here.

Try personalizing Push Notifications and convert downloaded users into buyers and buyers in loyal customers. To know more about personalized Push, leave a comment below or reach us at marketing@vizury.com

Also, download this step by step guide to optimize App Marketing and grow conversions on your app.

 

To know more about chrome notifications, google notifications, android notification Browser Push Notifications and  push messages visit our website https://www1.vizury.com/

 

 

Video Blog: Machine Learning for dummies

It’s interesting how Machine Learning has been creating such a buzz. From parking enforcement in Australia to Indian banks offering customized loans, Machine Learning has helped solve many real-life problems. And if you are working with a big data marketing firm (like I do), you see a lot more of Machine Learning in action – you can read one recent blog around personalizing Push Notifications using Machine learning (ML from now on)!

Here’s a video that explains what Machine Learning is and with the help of an event manager’s dilemma of sorting guests’ seating, I have also explained how ML can be used for problem solving. Liked the video? Do let me know – I have more on ML coming really soon…

 

Battling for the skies – Airline price wars and a possible truce

This time it was SpiceJet that triggered it. SpiceJet announced their Rs.511 offer last month that set off an airfare war, Indigo and Air India are now looking to make similar offers in order to win customers. Around the same time, the Dublin-based no frills carrier Ryan Air announced a 7% cut in fares starting another airfare war in another part of the world.

But this is nothing new! Time and again we read about an airline dropping fares for certain routes. The discounts are so steep that other airlines must jump into the fray, triggering the infamous price war. A typical offer goes something like this:

Airlines_price_wars_Vizury.png

For an airline, discounting is the usual solution to manage seats across routes. For end customers, it is an opportunity to plan their travel in advance and avail really cool airfares for that trip. Overall, it looks like a win-win situation for both the customer and the airline and all seems hunky-dory. Except it’s not!

These absurdly low fares probably help an airline in increasing its fill rates, but do such offers help the airline optimize inventory monetization (in this case seats available)? Do your customers really get the perfect deal?

  • Wouldn’t you, as an airline marketer be delighted with a smarter and consistent discounting mechanism rather than a limited period blast?
  • While offering discounts, what if you could reach loyal customers with special offers?
  • Is there some way for you to reach out to in-market customers and provide customized/personalized offers based on their individual search criteria? Can you do this at scale for all your website/app customers?
  • And finally, what if you could maximize yield even while you offered discounts and delighted your customers?

Answering these questions opens up new opportunities for airline brands.

Royal (Loyal) customers – Typically airline brands resort to emails to connect with loyal customers. This has worked quite well and I assume that for tne next couple of years, emails will continue to be the primary channel for an airline to connect with registered users. But, this should not stop you from offering privilege discounts linked to their CRM ID. This will ensure that only registered users enjoy additional discounts that cannot be reused by other users. You could grow your registered user-base and win some more of your customer’s love.

Go after in-market customers

Reach out to customers that are currently active on your website or App across as many channels as possible with customized offers. Furthermore, deep link the landing page for such campaigns with the cart page and apply a customized offer.

Make it smarter

You might have implemented some these strategies already! But, it is important for an airline to make discounting a more sustainable and through-the-year strategy. More importantly, you need a real-time mechanism to push out custom offers for each user (based on loyal, in-market, firt time and many more). To do this you must,

  1. Gather know how of historic route-based demand and supply analytics
  2. Daily analytics of demand for each route in terms of searches > carts > purchases
  3. Partnerships with aggregators

There is an untapped opportunity to flip the discounting strategy and make it customer-centric. Result of this would be higher occupancy rates for airlines, delighted customers and probably an end to these price wars as well.

 

How I didn’t buy my lounge access credit card

It had been a lazy Sunday as usual. Late breakfast, a movie after that and a good long nap after lunch.

In the evening, as I was sipping on my tea, I was browsing through my bank’s website to look for a credit card that offers lounge access at international airports. Being a frequent traveler, getting this card was important for me. I was growing increasingly tired of the long waits sitting on uncomfortable chairs at airports. I spent about 10-15 minutes on the website and figured that a particular premium credit card offered ‘international lounge access’. It had some other benefits too and came with an annual fee.

The kids kept calling me and I said ‘just coming’. And then I heard my wife’s voice ‘honey, we need to go grocery shopping’. When the wife calls, you heed. I closed my laptop and left without looking back.

A week later…

While in transit at Kuala Lumpur airport, I had to wait 40 minutes for my flight and I didn’t have access to the airport lounge. I forgot about the card. Ahh…

pexels-photo-54374.jpeg

As an individual at the airport I obviously wasn’t happy with myself for not having purchased the card. As a customer, I was certainly not happy with the bank. I had spent a good 15 minutes on their website researching a specific product. Doesn’t that show intent? Don’t they analyze what users do on their websites? Shouldn’t they have reached out to me at some point in this past one week reminding me to buy the card?

The inherent marketer couldn’t help but wondering about the possible actions the bank could have taken to prompt me to buy the card I was looking for. And I had time too… 40 minutes.

  1. Engage me on the internet

While I was browsing one of the many websites (sports, news, ecommerce, etc.) that I did over the week a personalized ad of the card with its key features in at least one of those website would have helped. I would have clicked on it and gone on to buy the card for sure.

  1. Remind me on the bank’s website itself

I did login to the bank’s website at least two more times in the past week to transfer money and pay some bill. A customized Home page message with information on the card or a banner on the Logout page would have been great. Log out page would have definitely done the trick. Or even a pop up may be?

  1. Send me an email

An email with the name of the card in the subject line would have certainly gotten my attention. I received a few emails from the bank over the past week about various offers but none reminded me about this card. Why not?

4. Call from a Relationship Manager

A call from an executive would have been good too. ‘Sir, you had looked for an international lounge access premium card. Would you still be interested in buying the card? I will be glad to help you’ – that’s all it would have taken. Not intruding at all.

  1. Engagement via Banking app

I am an active user of the bank’s app too. I use it at least once a week. A customized push notification with a reminder about the card would have been perfect.

I am sure there are other customers who leave behind a data trail pointing to their ‘buying intent’ and a gentle reminder from the bank through any of the aforementioned channels doesn’t harm at all. It’s a win-win for the bank and the customer.

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To sum up the point of all this, I need to put on my digital solutions expert hat. Here it goes –

Banks need to do this to increase the digital share of their business – identify existing customers among the pool of website visitors and personalize engagement across digital touchpoints. It’s a crime not to.

Question is – is it possible? Of course it is.

Meanwhile, I have no option but to sit on these metal chairs for another 40 minutes until it’s time for me to board my flight. A good strong coffee will be nice.

Do you have a lounge access credit card? What do you think of user personalization? Write to marketing@vizury.com to let us know.

P.S: You can download the guide on how BFSI companies can increase digital share of their business through website personalization.

 

 

5 Game of Thrones characters that are using your app

Originally posted on: Daily Social

When people aren’t talking about Brexit or getting used to the fact that Trump isn’t some elaborate extraterrestrial hoax, they’re probably watching the Game of Thrones season finale on loop trying to wrap their minds around the sheer awesomeness of all the bloodshed and gore. If the ‘Battle of the Bastards’ made up for an otherwise underwhelming season, ‘Winds of Winter’ did all that and much more, a true return to the kind of intense storytelling the TV show has formed a cult around. Several seemingly muddled plot lines fell into place, setting up perfectly for the great war next season.

Walking into work on Tuesday morning, our mind was playing the episode over and over again so much that there was a metaphorical spilling over of sorts. We imagined dragons were delivering office memos, and there was something in the cafeteria kitchen that looked suspiciously like wildfire. Anyway, we decided to put this bizarre train of though to productive use, so here’s a comparison of app users to characters on our favorite show on HBO. After all, all men must buy!

GOT-on-your-App-Vizury-1-1024x761-1.jpg

Ned Stark

Honest, righteous always stood up for what’s right.

The Ned Stark from the App world is a frequent app visitor, engages with your emails, clicks on your Push but never buys. What will it take to make Ned buy at least once?

Jon Snow

He’s the braveheart! King of the North, he inspires others. Loved by all, just the thought of his death was heart breaking, wasn’t it?

Your Jon Snow user is extremely engaged and inspired his friends to get your app as well. How we wish he never uninstalled the app…

Petyr Baelish

The ever-scheming, self-made Lord. He never does anything without hidden benefits and you couldn’t guess what’s on his mind.

Petyr Baelish is forever scouting for new offers. He downloads your app, avails the offer and then he hits the UNINSTALL button!

 Arya Stark

Confused and always on the run. The Starks, the Lannisters and many others have been trying to find her but in vain.

Arya downloads your app and visits so many different pages within an hour. Apparels, Networking Devices, Home Furnishings, Men’s Shoes, Books, Games, Mountain Climbing Gear and Fragrances! What does she want really? You’re confused, aren’t you?

Tyrion Lannister

Clever, always vocal about his feelings and has as a fine taste for the pleasures of the world. But remember, he always pays his debts.

Your Tyrion Lannister is no less. From coolers to shirts, everything he buys is premium and just wow. He’s almost always loyal; but that one delayed delivery and you must face his Twitter-wrath.

Every user on your app is different and it takes a lot of personalization to connect with all of them. Tell us how you engage with these GoT characters that are using your app. Also, check out this story of a typical app user – everything that happens from the day a user installs an app till he hits the uninstall button.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personalization: The new ingredient in BFSI marketing

The BFSI space is undergoing a digital transformation. Its becoming eminently clear that mobile and e-channels will drive the next wave of banking. Linked to this transformation seems to be two dominant themes that are hogging the CXO mindshare. For one, BFSI players have recognized the need to make their digital assets much more transaction centric. Secondly, and focus of this article, they want to use the rich data available with them to drive customer experience on the brand’s owned digital assets

The starting point of creating such an experience is to understand all data sources available in the first place. Clearly, these are:

  • Digital “First Party” data: Just a fancy way of saying “whatever your customers are doing on your digital assets”
  • Offline first party data: That’s all the transaction history and other CRM data available about your customers as an offline data source
  • “Third party” data – Just means “whatever your customers seem to be doing on other websites”

There is also a category called “second party” data – customer behavior gathered on group websites or other related/partner portals. But in this article, we will assume this gets clubbed with first party data.

Great, so we have the entire universe of data mapped into these categories. The next step is to assign priority so that you know which data source should take precedence. Here is a framework:

First party > CRM > Third Party

house-money-capitalism-fortune-12619-medium.jpg

First party first

Customers visiting your digital assets are clearly brand aware and are showing specific intent – there is no substitute for this data, it’s gold. And should be prioritized over all other types of data.

Offline next

Data you own and already have about your customers’ transaction patterns should be the next source you turn to. Structuring and mining this data can help you decide what message you want to show each and every customer.

Third Party at least!

At a minimum, you should be able to understand the customer’s third party interests and create a personalized experience – though this is certainly not as rich and relevant as your own digital and offline data. An example – recommend a travel credit card if the customer has shown travel intent recently.

Showing a “one message fits all” is the worst thing you could do and any static non-personalized creative should be your last resort.

So there you have it, a simple but effective framework to organize and use all the data you have to create a personalized experience on your digital assets.

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Personalized messages produce an average of 200% lifts in site engagements leading to a higher volume of leads and sales. What you need is a data and marketing platform, that allows you to execute on this strategy through a tight integration of your data sources with your website creative slots.

Smart tags on your website would capture first party behavior. Offline data is ingested as a file and specific customers are identified using anonymized hashed customer ids. Finally, your marketing partner’s audience database of Internet customers can ensure you have the richness of third party data at your disposal. All this data must be maintained on your own cloud hosted data management platform (DMP) and available for use in a highly intuitive customer interface for segmentation.

And the best part – every segment can be activated on your website through a seamless integration. Gone are the days when you needed to bring in a complex workflow involving multiple functions to take creatives live. You could be up and running in minutes.

So if you are a BFSI marketer – when in the e-commerce world, do as the e-commerce players do. No, that does not mean you give random discounts and burn through cash like there is no tomorrow!! But it’s well worth imitating the e-commerce data driven marketing playbook and squeeze every ounce out of the data you have.

This article was originally published in the NASSCOM Blog.

Subra Krishnan is SVP, Products at Vizury. You can reach out to him at subra.krishnan@vizury.com.

Growth recipes for Banks to maximize digital share of business

Consumer behaviour has gone through a massive change in the past few years. The growing access to internet and the surge of smartphones have led to the inevitable transition to digital, especially in the banking industry. Banks are aggressively looking to grow the digital share of their business.

Every bank’s growth is driven by 2 key aspects,

  • Acquiring New To Bank (NTB) customers and
  • Engaging existing customers

Creating a consistent and personalized experience for your users across all digital touchpoints is indispensable to increased engagement and eventual conversions.

Download the guide to get your hands on 5 unique ‘growth recipes’ as we call them to help you maximize the digital share of your business.

Write to us at marketing@vizury.com for any thoughts or questions.

Product Feed or User Level Feed? – Part 1

When it comes to user-behavior, everyone looks at a specific offering from the seller. Be it a shoe on an e-com website, an insurance cover by a specific insurer or a flight ticket from an OTA site. At a superficial level, all such product behavior can be rolled-up into micro-segments – either they are standard products or a combination of parameters that can be used to define a product. Such information passed on to your marketing partner (through what is known as a feed) helps in customizing your marketing conversations at a user level.

Feeds can be of two types – Product feed and User Level feed. For the uninitiated, a product feed contains all of your products’ information. It is sent to your marketing partners to communicate all the information that your product listings contain. A User Level feed on the other hand, helps pass on behavioral information for every user visiting your website. A marketer’s dilemma however, has always been around the kind of feed that must be used for a particular objective.

Some examples of feed are below:

E-commerce

(PID) SHOEGDSUQH3H6KDK – (Name) Adidas ADIRAY M Running Shoes – (Price) 2024 – (Landing Page Link) http://www.flipkart.com/adidas-adiray-m-running-shoes/p/itmegs6uhnyvc8ea?pid=SHOEGDSUQH3H6KDK&al=lzXHu186h72R7T%2BfGLUumMldugMWZuE7eGHgUTGjVro%2Bvyawh9FRHnWRRcvnkv2FxqqeNgwGvtw%3D&ref=L%3A-6148140333017970467&srno=b_1

Online Insurance

(PID) CarName_RegYear_RTO – (Name) Chevrolet Beats Petrol – (Price) 10,590 – (Landing Page Link) User Specific – (Provider) Insurer Name

OTA

(PID) ORIGIN_DESTINATION_DOJ_RD – (Origin) Bangalore – (Destination) Delhi – (Date) 24/09/2016 – (Price) 6,789 – (Landing Page Link) https://www.goibibo.com/flights/#flight-searchresult/#air-BLR-DEL-20160924–1-0-0-E

In the above 3 examples, ecommerce and OTA brands typically use a product feed since they have a common landing page and a lot of users will fall into the same bucket (PID).

Insurance on the other hand has user specific landing pages. This is done to create a better user experience. When a user comes back with a specific link specific, most of the details are pre-filled – this is possible with a User Level feed. User-specific feed helps you understand user behavioral state. While a lot of users will fall in the same PID bucket, they may have selected different prices offered by different insurers. In such a case, the insurance brand will want to show the price selected and not the lowest price (which is what will be stored in case of product level feed aggregation).

How do we go about choosing the right feed type?

This is where the Vizury’s consulting comes into effect. At the time of integration, we closely work with brands to understand multiple end-to-end use cases both from their business and marketing perspective. Based on these scenarios we advise clients on what kind of feed setup (product vs. user-level) will help them achieve the same. And what are the necessary changes that they need, if required.

Subsequently, we modify our data collection process and on-behalf of our clients either absorb:

1) Product feed provided by client (XML, CSV)

2) User Level feed (created and maintained by Vizury end-to-end)

Some typical use cases for Ecommerce, Insurance and Airlines coming soon. I will also include the business impact created by using the right kind of feed – Do watch out for the next one.

Also, you can reach me at rajiv.kumar@vizury.com if you are looking for specific advice on setting up feeds for your marketing campaigns.

Paid, Earned, & Owned Media – Where Does Mobile Fit In?

Mobile Marketing has been transforming rapidly over the last few years. In mobile-led markets like India and SEA, brands have started looking beyond the usual to connect with their users. It is important however, to use the right mix of media channels in order to improve your marketing effectiveness and ROI. At Vizury, we have implemented a “FREE BEFORE PAID” strategy that help optimize our marketing spends. This is how it works – Everytime we must reach out to our target audience we use free/owned channels that are available at lower engagement costs (like email, our own website across desktop and mobile). We then use  Display, Social channels that have media spends attached to them to reach users who have not responded to the first attempt via owned channels. This helps us optimize our spends while ensuring that our target audience is engaged. And all of this is automated with the help of our Growth Marketing Platform.

Here’s an interesting blog about using the right channels by Michael Becker Managing Partner, mCordis and co-creator of The Connected Marketer approach to marketing; originally published by Waterfall on June 23, 2016.

Marketers use media channels to deliver their message and guide people along the customer journey. Media channels are the collection of various mediums, including print, out-of-home, retail, newspaper, radio, television, websites, email, text messaging, and apps, to name a few. These channels are used to reach and engage an intended audience with a brand’s message and content.

Marketing practices fall into one of three media channel categories; paid, owned, and earned media. Each form of media is useful at different stages of the customer journey. Figure 1 below illustrates how the different forms of media may impact the various stages of the customer journey.

media_to_consumer_journey.png

Paid Media

Paid media, often referred to as advertising, is the practice of paying to place one’s marketing message or offer in another company’s owned media. Examples of paid media include the placement of physical advertisements and offers in print and out-of-home media, like magazines, billboards, and point-of-sale displays. Other examples include advertisements placed in digital media outlets such as search ads, banners in web portals like Google or Yahoo!, rich media ads in online news outlets like The Weather Channel or The Wall Street Journal, native ads in social media channels like Facebook and SnapChat, offers in shopping apps like iBotta or Overstock, and in specialized content in services likeYummly. Paid media works exceedingly well at stimulating awareness, interest, desire and action.

Owned Media

Owned media refers to media that is under the direct control of a marketer, such as a non-messaging based media, including website, physical retail store and point-of-sale display, mobile apps and messaging based media (e.g. email, text message, push or in-app notifications). Non-messaging related owned media is most effective for the early stages of the customer journey but has little effect on the later parts of the customer journey while messaging-based media is the one media channel that has an effect on every stage of the customer journey.

Earned Media

In addition to paid and owned media, there’s a third category of media that has come to the attention of marketers in recent years: earned media. Earned media, a byproduct of effective paid and owned media, refers to the free publicity and brand amplification a marketer recognizes from people sharing and commenting on the marketer’s owned and paid media efforts. Again, generating earned media is not in the marketers direct control. It is a byproduct of people positively responding to the marketer’s programs and content. For example, earned media is generated when someone likes, shares, links to, or recommends your paid or owned media, like a promotional video or new product release. Earned media wields a significant influence over upper and lower parts of the customer journey.

How Much Are Marketers Spending?

When employed properly, each of these media types can be used to effectively guide someone through the stages of the customer journey. Gartner estimates that firms are spending 11% of revenues on marketing overall. On the paid media front, McKinsey & Company estimates that marketers globally spent $1.6 trillion in 2015 and that this spending on media will grow at a compounded annual rate of 5.1% to $2.1 trillion by 2019. In the United States, eMarketer estimates the U.S. Marketers spent $189 billion on advertising in 2015 and they’ll spend nearly $195 billion in 2016. All three of these analysts agree that the general trend of this spending is flowing into digital media, especially paid media in mobile web and apps, as that is where most media is consumed.

Research shows that when marketers advertise properly, brand awareness, favorability, purchase intent and even actual sales may increase. All of the money spent in marketing does work and helps marketers achieve their objectives. However, no matter how effective paid media marketing is, marketers must see it for what it is.

Paid media is a great tool for generating awareness and engaging people, but it has little to no lasting value in isolation. In fact, a marketer that primarily relies on paid media may be considered a tenant farmer. Like a tenant farmer, as soon as the marketer stops paying for media, they are kicked off the land (e.g. their ads don’t show up anymore). This means they’re no longer able to engage their audience and they’re left with little or no lasting return.

Where Does Mobile Fit In?

To get the most out of their efforts, marketers should look to reduce their reliance on paid and non-messaging based owned media. To accomplish this, marketers should establish what we refer to as an Owned Media Causeway (OMC). With an OMC strategy, the goal is to use paid media, including social media, in order to drive individuals to the marketers owned media channels. This effort will enable marketers to establish a direct connection with individuals so that they may begin communicating with them.

Mobile is at the heart of an effective OMC strategy according to comScore, 65% of all media is consumed via the mobile phone.

To operationalize an OMC strategy, marketers must strategically leverage content and the placement of invitations in both paid and owned media in order engage the individual. Once the individual is interacting with the marketer’s owned media, the marketer can then time the placement of opt-in invitations to join the marketer’s owned communications database in order to receive future communications, VIP content and offers, from the marketer. It goes without saying, marketers’ media content must be mobile-optimized, as that is how it will most likely be viewed.

Establishing the owned media causeway and a direct connection with individuals is critical to the future success of marketing for every company. It amplifies the benefit from marketing expenditure on both owned and paid media, building an asset, a database, a foundation for a direct line of communication with individuals that have opened themselves up to hear from and to engage the marketer.

1Genovese, Y.; Sorofman, J.; Virzi A. (2015). CMO Spend Survey 2015-2016: Digital Marketing Comes of Age. Gartner. Retrieved from::https://www.gartner.com/doc/3154117/cmo-spend-survey–digital
2Batch, M.; Murdock, S.; Scanlan, J (2015). The state of global media spending. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from:http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/media_entertainment/The_state_of_global_media_spending?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1512

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